There are several advantages to having natural microbes break down contaminants in soil and groundwater. First, it’s cost effective. More importantly, the process involves using native microorganisms that already are present under the earth’s surface.

Sometimes, however, the microbes need a little boost from the outside to help get them going. Scientists either use “bio-stimulation,” which involves giving them nutrients or oxygen, or “bio-augmentation,” …
More at http://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=129294&WT.mc_id=USNSF_51&WT.mc_ev=click

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